by Reid RobisonJul 20, 2023
Eating disorders affect millions of people worldwide, presenting complex challenges that often require comprehensive and innovative approaches to treatment. In recent years, there has been growing interest in the potential of psychedelic-assisted therapy as a transformative tool in the realm of mental health. This blog post explores the emerging field of psychedelic-assisted therapy for eating disorders, shedding light on its promising benefits and the implications it may have for the future of treatment.
Eating disorders affect at least 9% of the population, or 70 million people, worldwide, and this number is increasing. A review of worldwide data found that eating disorder diagnoses more than doubled from 2000-2018, with the trend was consistent across regions, age groups, and genders.
These conditions are also serious, falling among the deadliest mental illnesses, second only to opioid overdose. Every year, 10,200 deaths occur as the direct result of an eating disorder—that’s one death every 52 minutes.
Understanding Eating Disorders
“Eating disorders are a window into the struggle of the soul.”
People don’t choose eating disorders. Nobody wakes up one day and says “I’d like to have anorexia”—If they do, they’re seriously misinformed. Eating disorders aren’t choices, but rather serious multi-faceted and biologically influenced illnesses. An individual may consciously decide to purge or over-exercise at first, but before long, this disordered relationship with food and one’s body can become a deeply-ingrained subconscious pattern that takes on a life of its own. When left untreated, eating disorders can lead to serious, and sometimes life-threatening, physical and psychological consequences, underscoring the urgent need for effective therapeutic interventions.
Thankfully, eating disorder behaviors are learned behaviors and can be unlearned—but it takes time. Everyone has the capacity for full recovery. Part of the work in recovery is to uncover the meaning or purpose behind the symptoms.
The Limitations of Traditional Treatments
Conventional treatment approaches, including cognitive-behavioral therapy and medication, have demonstrated some effectiveness in managing eating disorders. However, there are currently no FDA-approved treatment options for anorexia nervosa and only one for bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder respectively. While depression commonly occurs with most eating disorders, traditional antidepressants (i.e. SSRIs) often lack efficacy in patients with anorexia. Even when patients are able to take advantage of available treatments, many continue to struggle with symptoms, and relapse rates remain high.
Studies have found that over a third of all patients treated for anorexia or bulimia end up relapsing within the first few years of completing treatment. The highest risk for relapse from anorexia occurs in the first 18 months (about 1 and a half years) after treatment, with 35% falling back into eating disordered behaviors.
While the onset of bulimia usually occurs during adolescence or early adulthood, it tends to persist for several years, either chronically or intermittently. Treatment does help most people with bulimia achieve long-lasting recovery, but relapse still is a significant concern, with rates of up to 41% of former patients resuming bulimic behaviors within 2 years.
Recognizing these challenges, researchers and clinicians have continued to search for new and improved ways to help individuals with eating disorders find more long-lasting and complete healing, including the use of psychedelic-assisted therapy as a potential alternative or complementary treatment modality.
The Role of Psychedelics in Healing
Psychedelic substances like psilocybin, MDMA, and LSD have shown promise in facilitating profound psychological healing in individuals dealing with depression, PTSD, substance abuse, eating disorders, and other mental health conditions. Though theoretical mechanisms of action of psychedelic medicines are still being investigated, a growing body of research points suggest that psychedelics create desirable brain states that can accelerate therapeutic processes and make eating disorder interventions easier to receive. The desirable brain states in
- Cognitive flexibility: Altered states of consciousness induced by psychedelics help break entrenched patterns of thinking and offer individuals new perspectives on their relationship with their body, food, and self-image. By relaxing tightly held prior beliefs, psychedelics have a loosening or lubricating effects on rigid thinking which helps free individuals from the patterns that have kept them stuck and allows them to consciously choose the path ahead.
- Increased self-awareness: Psychedelic experiences can lead to heightened self-awareness, allowing individuals to explore the root causes of their eating disorder and gain insights into their thoughts, emotions, and behaviors.
- Emotional breakthroughs: Psychedelics have the potential to catalyze deep emotional healing by accessing repressed memories and facilitating cathartic releases, which can help individuals address underlying trauma and emotional wounds.
Group Ketamine-Assisted Therapy for Eating Disorders 
This pilot study, led by Dr. Reid Robison, Chief Clinical Officer of Numinus, explored the use of group ketamine-assisted psychotherapy (KAP) in a residential eating disorder treatment facility. 5 individuals with eating disorder diagnoses and comorbid mood and anxiety disorders received weekly intramuscular ketamine injections in a group setting followed by non-drug psychotherapy over 4 weeks.
Regarding the outcomes, the study found promising results. Group KAP was feasible and well-tolerated, with high patient satisfaction and treatment adherence rates. Participants experienced reduced symptoms of depression, anxiety and showed significant improvements in eating eating symptoms and quality of life, with effects persisting at a 6-month follow-up.
“Trying ketamine allowed me to see the possibility of a life I could have. While the effects did not last, my very first experience snapped me out of a state of life-long, deep disconnection that I didn’t even know I had been experiencing. Suddenly, I was able to live in the world in the way people had always described it. Though I am still trying to figure out how to attain that level of connection after catching a glimpse, that one experience was so essential. I could finally feel hunger and fullness cues. I felt what it’s like to live in a body, instead of living a short distance from it. I felt connected to others and genuinely cared about their well-being. I felt human for the first time in a long time.”
Psilocybin-Assisted Therapy for Anorexia 
This study being conducted by Compass Pathways in collaboration with University of California San Diego, is exploring the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of psilocybin-assisted therapy for patients with anorexia. Preliminary results from 10 participants who received a single 25 mg dose of synthetic psilocybin (~3.5 grams of dried psilocybin) shows:
- 30% of participants had clinically significant reductions in eating disorder symptoms after one month. At 3 months, this number rose to 40%.
- Participants experienced significant reductions in body shape concerns at 1-month follow-up.
- 90% of participants found the experience to be meaningful and therapeutic.
- Psilocybin therapy was well-tolerated and no serious adverse events were reported.
Psilocybin-Assisted Therapy for Binge-Eating Disorder 
This Phase II study is currently underway at the University of Florida in collaboration with Tryp Therapeutics and happens to be the first ever psilocybin-assisted therapy study addressing binge-eating disorder. Interim analysis of five early participants has found:
- Daily binge eating episodes were reduced by an average of 80.4% from baseline during the 4-week post-dosing period, with all patients reporting a daily reduction of at least 60% from baseline.
- Daily instances of patients feeling they had lost control over their eating were reduced by 81.6% on average
- Improvement in HADS anxiety and depression scores
- Treatment was well tolerated and showed a favorable safety profile in all participants
MDMA-Assisted Therapy for Eating Disorder Symptoms 
This study investigated the effects of MDMA-assisted therapy on adults with severe PTSD, specifically exploring its impact on eating disorder symptoms. A total of 90 participants with severe PTSD received treatment in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. At baseline, 13 participants had EAT-26 scores in the clinical range, and 28 had scores in the high-risk range, despite the absence of active purging or low weight. After finishing the study, there was a significant reduction in total EAT-26 scores in the entire PTSD group following MDMA-assisted therapy compared to placebo. Moreover, significant reductions in total EAT-26 scores were observed in women with high EAT-26 scores (≥11 and ≥20) following the study protocol.
|MAPS||Phase II||MDMA for anorexia and BED||Anticipated start date in 2023|
|Johns Hopkins||Phase I||Psilocybin for anorexia||Enrollment complete|
|Imperial College||Phase I/II||Psilocybin for anorexia||Enrollment complete|
|TRYP||Phase II||Psilocybin for BED||Enrolling|
|XPIRA||Phase II||Psilocybin for Anorexia||Anticipated start date in 2023|
|COMPASS||Phase II||Psilocybin for Anorexia||Enrolling|
Integrating Psychedelics with Conventional Models
Integration of psychedelic-assisted therapy with conventional eating disorder treatment requires careful consideration of medical and safety factors, as well as the crucial involvement of specialized eating disorder clinicians. These clinicians have the expertise to navigate the unique challenges and triggers associated with eating disorders, helping patients access and integrate psychedelics in a safe and therapeutic manner. Their involvement ensures a comprehensive treatment approach that combines the benefits of psychedelic therapy with the tailored support required for individuals with eating disorders, leading to more effective and sustainable outcomes. We view the role of psychedelics as an adjunctive to traditional treatments, not a “replacement.”
Psychedelic-assisted therapy represents a promising frontier in the treatment of eating disorders, offering new possibilities for deep healing and transformation. While further research is needed to fully understand its effectiveness and establish appropriate guidelines, preliminary studies and anecdotal evidence suggest that this approach holds tremendous potential. As the field progresses, it is essential to strike a balance between innovation and responsible practice, ultimately providing individuals with hope and a path toward recovery from their eating disorders.
- Arcelus, Jon et al. “Mortality rates in patients with anorexia nervosa and other eating disorders. A meta-analysis of 36 studies.” Archives of general psychiatry 68,7 (2011): 724-31. https://doi.org/10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2011.74
- BMC Psychiatry. 2019; 19: 134. Published online 2019 May 6. doi: 10.1186/s12888-019-2112-9
- (Ghaderi et al., 2018, Ward et al., 2019)
- Deloitte Access Economics. The Social and Economic Cost of Eating Disorders in the United States of America: A Report for the Strategic Training Initiative for the Prevention of Eating Disorders and the Academy for Eating Disorders. June 2020. Available at: https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/striped/report-economic-costs-of-eating-disorders/.
- Galmiche M, Déchelotte P, Lambert G, Tavolacci MP. Prevalence of eating disorders over the 2000-2018 period: a systematic literature review. Am J Clin Nutr. 2019;109(5):1402-1413. doi:10.1093/ajcn/nqy342