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Functional Neurological Disorders & Functional Seizures

FND is the 2nd most common cause for a patient to visit a community neurologist.

What Is It?

A Functional Neurological Disorder (FND) is a medical condition in which the nervous system and the brain/body struggle to communicate, usually due to an abnormality in how the brain functions. Causes can involve both biological factors, emotional factors, and sociological factors.  

Functional Neurologic Disorder (FND) is a complex condition impacting the nervous system, leading to diverse neurological symptoms including muscle weakness, tremors, sensory issues, cognitive challenges, and episodes resembling seizures. Diagnosing and treating FND is intricate, as it arises from disrupted communication or function within the nervous system rather than detectable brain alterations through conventional tests.

FND can coincide with neurological conditions like multiple sclerosis or stroke, which typically have clear structural causes. However, FND can also occur independently.

Functional seizures (FS), also termed psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) or dissociative seizures (DS), constitute a subtype of FND. These sudden events resemble epileptic seizures but lack underlying abnormal electrical activity. How they develop and form is unclear and an area of active research in the field of neurology and psychiatry..

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Symptoms of FND

Common symptoms of FND include:

  • Limb weakness
  • Seizures or episodes of loss of consciousness
  • Drop attacks or fainting spells
  • Twitches, Jerks or Tremors
  • Paralysis, TIngling, Numbness
  • Cognitive challenges
  • Speech & swallowing difficulties
  • Dizziness
  • Muscle tightness
  • Inability to walk or inability to walk normally
  • Bladder symptoms
  • Visual symptoms
  • Tics

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The content on this page is provided for educational and informational purposes only and does not constitute medical or mental health advice. Any opinions or conclusions expressed on this page are the opinions of the person who provided them only and are not necessarily the opinions of Numinus or general sentiment of the medical profession. Results vary significantly by individual and the treatments described on our website may not be appropriate or safe for your individual circumstances. Always seek the advice of your own physician and/or mental health practitioner regarding any questions or concerns you have about your specific circumstances.


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