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Functional Neurological Disorders & Functional Seizures

Leveraging the skillset of our multidisciplinary team, we provide diagnosis and rehabilitation for Functional Neurological Disorder (FND) and Functional Seizures (FS).

What Is Functional Neurological Disorder and Functional Seizures?

Functional Neurologic Disorder (FND) is a complex condition that affects the nervous system, leading to various neurological symptoms such as muscle weakness, tremors, sensory problems, cognitive difficulties and seizure-like episodes. FND is a challenging condition to diagnose and treat because it arises from disrupted communication or ‘function’ within the nervous system and not due to alterations in the brain that can be detected with conventional testing. 

FND can evolve in conjunction with neurological conditions like multiple sclerosis or stroke which tend to have identifiable causes on standard testing but, in other situations, FND can manifest in the absence of these conditions.

Functional seizures (FS), also known as psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) or dissociative seizures (DS), are a subtype of FND. They are characterized by sudden events that look like epileptic seizures, but are not due to underlying abnormal electrical (i.e. epileptic) activity. 

FND is the second most common reason for referral to a community-based neurology practice. FND symptoms are observed in 40 – 50% of people with Persistent Symptoms after Concussion (PSaC) and are highly prevalent in a variety of other neurological conditions. Diagnosis can be difficult for patients to understand and is often challenging for health professionals to make. 

Our practitioners are well-versed in the diagnosis and treatment of FND and FS. It is a strong focus of the multidisciplinary care provided at our Toronto clinic. 

The team aims to help patients better conceptualize FND & FS by offering insights into its nature and the ways in which its symptoms manifest. Our multidisciplinary approach to diagnosis and treatment involves neurology, psychiatry,  psychology, occupational and physical therapy and novel therapeutic treatments such as medical cannabis and psychedelic- and ketamine-assisted therapy. To learn more, book a free informational call with one of our health navigators.

Approved For

  • FND
  • FS
  • Question of FND or FS
  • Presence of FND or FS in other Neurological Conditions
  • Second Opinion about FND 
  • Seeking New Therapeutic Approaches to FND or FS

Treatment at Numinus

We’ll start with a thorough assessment to better understand your condition and develop a care plan that meets your needs. 

Our services encompass comprehensive testing, medical evaluation, targeted rehabilitation and novel therapeutic approaches, all designed to address the unique challenges of FND and FS.


Our Locations

FND and FS Services are offered in-person at and virtually from our safe and comfortable clinic, designed with you in mind.

Numinus Toronto Eglinton Avenue
491 Eglington Ave. W, Suite 100, Toronto, ON M5N 1A7

Schedule An Informational Consult To Get Started

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Learn More About FDN and FS

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= Authors = Aarchie Soni, BHSc Health Sciences Candidate 2024, McMaster University Jenni Diamond, OT Reg. (Ont.)   Recovery after Concussion A concussion is a type of traumatic brain injury, […]
August 3, 2023
Psychedelic neurology, functional seizures, faith healing, and neuroplasticity with Dr. Evan Lewis
On this episode of Psychedelic Therapy Frontiers, Dr. Steve Thayer and Dr. Reid Robison are joined by Dr. Evan Lewis. Evan is a Neurologist and Clinical Neurophysiologist with expertise in […]
May 2, 2023


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